Aktivitas ekstrak etanol daun singawalang (Petiveria alliacea L.) dan fraksinya sebagai antidiabetes

Elis Susilawati, I Ketut Adnyana, Neng Fisheri

Sari


Abstrak

 

Diabetes melitus (DM) adalah sekelompok gangguan metabolik yang ditandai dengan hiperglikemia. Salah satu tanaman yang mempunyai efek antidiabetes adalah daun singawalang (Petiveria alliacea L.). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji aktivitas antidiabetes dengan model hewan defisiensi insulin dan penghambatan enzim alfa glukosidase. Pengujian defisiensi insulin dilakukan menggunakan mencit induksi  aloksan. Mencit dikelompokkan menjadi 11 kelompok, yaitu normal, kontrol negatif, kontrol positif (glibenklamid 0,65 mg/kgbb), ekstrak etanol (dosis 80 dan 160 mg/kgbb), fraksi n-heksana (dosis 80 dan 160 mg/kgbb),  fraksi etil asetat (dosis 80 dan 160 mg/kgbb), dan fraksi air (dosis 80 dan 160 mg/kgbb). Pemberian bahan uji dilakukan berulang setiap hari selama 14 hari dan kadar glukosa darah diukur  pada hari ke-7, 14, 17, dan 19. Kemudian hewan dikorbankan, dilakukan isolasi pankreas, dan dihitung luas pulau Langerhans, jumlah sel alfa dan beta pankreas. Pada uji hambat enzim alfa glukosidase, dilakukan penentuan nilai IC50 tiap fraksi terhadap aktivitas enzim, dan akarbose digunakan sebagai pembanding. Hasil uji defisiensi insulin menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol dosis 80 dan 160 mg/kgbb memiliki kemampuan untuk menurunkan kadar glukosa darah. Berdasarkan hasil histologi pankreas juga menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol dosis 80 dan 160 mg/kgbb mengurangi jumlah sel alfa pankreas, diperkirakan dapat menurunkan sekresi glukagon. Pada metode penghambatan enzim alfa glukosidase fraksi n-heksana dan fraksi air menunjukkan adanya penghambatan aktivitas enzim alfa glukosidase yang lebih baik dibandingkan akarbose. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah ektrak etanol daun singawalang dan fraksinya mempunyai aktivitas sebagai antidiabetes.

 

Kata kunci:     Daun singawalang, defisiensi insulin, enzim alfa glukosidase.

 

 

In vivo and in vitro activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of singawalang (Petiveria alliacea l.) and its fractions as antidiabetic

 

Abstract

 

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia. One of the plants that has antidiabetic effect is the leaves of singawalang (Petitiia alliacea L.). This study aims to examine antidiabetic activity with animal model of insulin deficiency and inhibition of alpha glucosidase enzyme. Tests of insulin deficiency were performed using alloxan induction mice. The mice were grouped into 11 groups, normal, negative control, positive control (glibenclamide 0.65 mg/kgbw), ethanol extract (doses 80 and 160 mg/kgbw), n-hexane fractions (doses 80 and 160 mg/kgbw), ethyl acetate doses 80 and 160 mg/kgbw), and water fractions (doses of 80 and 160 mg/kgbw). Testing was performed daily for 14 days and blood glucose was measured on days 7, 14, 17, and 19. Later animals were sacrificed, isolated pancreas, and calculated the area of Langerhans Island, the number of alpha and beta cells of the pancreas. In the alpha glucosidase enzyme inhibition test, IC50 values were determined for each fraction of enzyme activity, and the acarbose was used as a comparison. Insulin deficiency test results showed that ethanol extract dose 80 and 160 mg/kg bw has the ability to lower blood glucose levels. Based on histological results of the pancreas also showed that ethanol extract dose 80 and 160 mg/kgbw reduce the number of pancreatic alpha cells, is expected to decrease glucagon secretion. In the inhibition method of alpha glucosidase enzyme n-hexane fraction and water fraction showed the inhibition of alpha glucosidase enzyme activity better than akarbose. The conclusion of this research is the ethanol extract of singawalang leaves and fraction has activity as antidiabetes.

 

Keywords:      Diabetes mellitus, leaf singawalang, insulin deficiency, the enzyme alpha-glucosidase.


Teks Lengkap:

PDF

Referensi


Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Schwinghammer, Terry; Wells, Barbara; Malone, Patrick; Dipiro, Joseph; Kolesar, Jill; John, Rotschafer, 2008, Pharmacotherapy Principles and Practice. New York: Mc Graw Hill.

DiPiro J.T., Wells B.G., Schwinghammer T.L. and DiPiro C. V., 2015, Pharmacotherapy Handbook, Ninth Edit., McGraw-Hill Education Companies, Inggris, 161

DiPiro J.T., Wells B.G., Schwinghammer T.L. and DiPiro C. V, 2005. Pharmacoteraphy: A Pathophysiologic approach. New York: Mc Graw Hill.

IDF, 2013. IDF Diabetes Atlas. 6th ed. s.l.:International Diabetes Federation.

DeFronzo, R.A, (1988) .The Triumvirate of β-cell, muscle, liver: a collusion responsible for NIDDM. Diabetes 37:667-687.

Fitriani, N.H.N. (2014) : Aktivitas Antidiabetes Melitus Fraksi dari ekstrak etanol daun sirsak (Annona muricata L.) terhadap Mencit Jantan Swiss Webster, Tesis, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 14-19.

Gomori, G. (1939) : A Differential Stain for Cell Types in The Pancreatic Islets, Am. J. Pathol, 15(4), 497–499.

Etuk, E.U. (2010) : Animals Models for Studying Diabetes Mellitus, Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 2010, 1(2): 130-134

International Diabetes Federation. (2013) : IDF Diabetes Atlas Sixth edition, 34

Katzung, B.G., Masters, S.B and Trevor, A.J. 2009. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology 11th Ed. McGraw-Hill Companies, China.

Kaskoos A, R., 2013. In-vitro α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Centaurea calcitrapa from Iraq. American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Product, 1(1), pp. 122-125.

Martini, F.H., Nath, J.L., Bartholomew, E.F., 2012. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology. 9th ed. US: Benjamin Cummings, 620-621

Susilawati E, I Ketut Adnyana, Neng Fisheri, 2016, Kajian Aktivitas Antidiabetes Dari Ekstrak Etanol dan Fraksinya dari Daun Singawalang (Petiveria alliacea L.), Bandung, STFB.

Zhang, J., Wang, G., Beta, T, and Dong, J. (2014) : α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Polyphenols from the Burs of Castanea mollissima Blume. Molecules, Volume 19, pp. 8373-8386.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26874/kjif.v5i2.113

Refbacks

  • Saat ini tidak ada refbacks.


Visitors Statistic

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.